Chapter 2.4.3 Kcalc
===================
Kcalc is the default scientific calculator application for Lubuntu.
Features:
- Trigonometric functions
- Factorials
- Built in mathematical and scientific constants.
- Memory
- Copy and paste
Usage
------
To do simple arithmetic click the numbers and then press the sign for addition, multiplication, subtraction, or division. You can also type in the numbers and press :guilabel:`+` for addition, :guilabel:`-` for subtraction, :guilabel:`x` for multiplication and :guilabel:`/` for division. To view the answer press the button that is an :guilabel:`=`. To view a summary of each button you can mouse over to get a verbal description of the button.
.. image:: Kcalc.png
To make a number negative press the button that looks like a :guilabel:`+/-`. To insert decimals press the decimal point button which looks like a :guilabel:`.` when you get to the part which is less than a whole number. To clear input from Kcalc Press the button with a :guilabel:`C` on it. To group operations so they happen together use the parenthesis to make things grouped together for example 2*(2+3) would give the result of 10 because it would add 2 and 3 and then multiply by two.
To copy and answer out of Kcalc press :kbd:`control + c` or :menuselection:`Edit --> Copy` from the menu. To paste a number into Kcalc you can press :kbd:`control + v` or :menuselection:`Edit --> Paste` from the menu. To cut the text from Kcalc press :kbd:`control +x` or :menuselection:`Edit --> Cut` from the menu.
To undo an operation press :kbd:`Control+Z` or :menuselection:`Edit --> Undo`. To redo an operation press :kbd:`Control+Shift+Z` or :menuselection:`Edit --> Redo`.
Scientific calculator mode advanced functionality
-------------------------------------------------
If you want even more functionality of Kcalc there is also scientific mode which is accessed from :menuselection:`Settings --> Scientific Mode` radio button. The button :guilabel:`1/x` takes takes 1 and divides it by the number currently on the calculator also known as taking the reciprocal. :guilabel:`x!` read x factorial will take the number X you entered and multiple each number going down to 1 for example 5! would multiply 5*4*3*2*1.
The x :superscript:`2` button will take a x*x and multiply it by itself or square x. The button with x :superscript:`y` will take x the number you have in will exponentiate x to the power of y. The x 10 :superscript:`y` will end up multiplying x by 10 to the power of y so for example to multiply 5 by 10 to the power of 3 entering in will give the answer of 5,000. If you want your own custom constant buttons check the checkbox for :menuselection:`Settings --> Constants Buttons`.
To change the unit that angles are measured in for trigonometric units in Kcalc. Degrees take 360 to form a full circle while, 2Π radians form a full circle and 400 gradians form a full circle. The radio button for Deg is to select Degrees as the unit for angles, :guilabel:`Rad` selects radian as the unit of measurement of angles and :guilabel:`Grad` selects Gradians as the unit of measurement for angles. The :guilabel:`Sin` button takes what you have as the input and takes the trigonometric sine function of that value measured in the unit for angles you have selected. The :guilabel:`Cos` button takes the cosine of the value in the unit of angle you have selected. The :guilabel:`Tan` button takes the tangent of the angle in the current units.
To have a log with the base of 10 type the number you want to take the log of then press the :guilabel:`Log` button. To take a log based off e type the number you want to take the logarithm of then press the :guilabel:`Ln` button.
The Scientific mode also brings in a menu for many different predetermined comments under the :menuselection:`Constants`.
To store a value in memory press the :guilabel:`M+` Button. To retrieve a value from memory press the :guilabel:`MR` button. To clear a value from memory press the :guilabel:`MC` button.
.. image:: kcalc-scientific.png
Numerical System mode
---------------------
The numerical system mode lets you change your numerical base instead of say the default base 10. To switch to a binary calculations click the :guilabel:`Bin` radio button. To switch the Octal or base 8 format click the :guilabel:`Oct` radio button. To switch to a hexadecimal format or base 16 format click the :guilabel:`Hexadecimal` radio button. For numbers greater than 10 for hexadecimal press the A-F buttons. When you are in number that are not part of a numerical base the button will get grayed out. To switch back to decimal or base 10 press the :guilabel:`Dec` radio button.
.. image:: kcalcnummode.png
Statistic Mode
----------------
To enter Statistic mode :menuselection:`Settings --> Statistic Mode`. To enter multiple entries of data press the :guilabel:`Dat` button to enter data. To show how many pieces of data you have entered press the :guilabel:`N`. To view the mean or average of all the data press the :guilabel:`Mea` button. To view the median of the data press the :guilabel:`Med` button. To clear the statistical memory press the :guilabel:`CSt` button.
.. image:: kcalcstatistic.png
Customizing
-----------
To open configuration for Kcalc press :kbd:`Control+Shift+ +` or :menuselection:`Settings --> Configure Kcalc`. To change the maximum number of digits change the :guilabel:`Maximum number of digits` field. To have Kcalc set decimal precision to only a certain number of places after the decimal place check the :guilabel:`Set decimal precision` checkbox and select the number of digits after the decimal place. If you ant to show the result in the window title check the :guilabel:`Show result in window title` checkbox. To have Kcalc group digits together check the :guilabel:`Group digits` checkbox.
To cancel and not apply your changes press the :guilabel:`Cancel` button along the bottom. To apply your changes and not exit from this window press the :guilabel:`Apply` button. To restore the settings to your defaults press the :guilabel:`Restore Defaults`. To apply your changes if any and close this window press the :guilabel:`OK` button.
.. image:: kcalcpref.png
The :guilabel:`Font` tab has settings to change settings with your fonts. To choose the font for your buttons on your calculator :guilabel:`Button font` and press the :guilabel:`Choose` button to the font for the buttons on your calculator. To change the font for the display of the calculator. :guilabel:`Display font` will change how the and the :guilabel:`Choose` button
.. image:: kcalc-font-screenshot.png
The :guilabel:`Colors` tab has the colors of your user interface. To change your foreground color will change how the display or the number in the interface is the color next to :guilabel:`Foreground` color area to select. To change the background color of your display choose a different color on :guilabel:`background` button. To change the background color of the function buttons press the button next to :guilabel:`Functions`. To a change the color of the function button press button next to :guilabel:`Statisical functions`. To change the background color for hexidecimal functions :guilabel:`Hexadecimals`. To change the backgrounds of the numbers buttons press the button next to :guilabel:`Numbers`. To change the background of the memory keys press the button next to :guilabel:`memory`. To change the background of operations press the button next to :guilabel:`Operations`.
.. image:: kcalc-colors.png
To change your settings for :guilabel:`Constants` of to get constants constants stored is in the constants tab. To input a constant you have in the field to the left is the name of the constant on the field to the left. The filed in the center is where you put the value of the constant. To select from predefined constants press on the :guilabel:`Predefined` to bring up a menu of predefined constants.
.. image:: kcalc-constants.png
To customize your shortcuts for KCalc :menuselection:`Settings --> Configure Settings`. To see what your shortcut does read the :guilabel:`Action` column. To see what keys to press the shortcut is in the :guilabel:`Shortcut` column. To see a second shortcut to see what activates this is in the :guilabel:`Alternate` column. To change your shortcuts press the :guilabel:`Custom` button and then left click on it and input the shortcut you want. To reset your shortcuts to default press the :guilabel:`Defaults` button. To not make your changes to the shortcuts you made press the :guilabel:`Cancel` button. To use your new shortcuts as a calculator press the :guilabel:`OK` button.
.. image:: kcalc-shortcuts.png
Version
-------
Lubuntu ships with version 19.04.3 of Kcalc.
How to Launch
-------------
To launch Kcalc go to :menuselection:`Accessories --> Kcalc` or run
.. code::
kcalc
from the command line. The icon for Kcalc looks like a box with a + sign a - sign a multiplication sign and an equals sign.